The Internet Of Things Can Poke Holes In Your Network

Mark Funchion is a network technician at Tech Experts.

Some business owners spend a lot of time protecting their network. After putting a firewall in place, configuring security settings, and setting up users with complex passwords (and possibly even 2FA), it’s easy to think that’s secure enough.

Now, having that solid foundation and framework is great. If you’ve done that, you’re definitely on the right track. But you still might leave yourself open to exploitation without even knowing it.

How does that happen? IoT – the Internet of Things.

You’ve secured your business network, but what about the smart watches, fitness trackers, connected speakers, thermostats, and every other device with a battery and a tiny signal? Every single one of those devices is a potential inroad to your network.

For example, a user’s watch connects to their cell phone, which is connected to your business’s Wi-Fi network. With no firewall on the watch, that creates a potential path into your network.

All of these devices require an IP address. In the past, forty people only needed fifty IP addresses to allow everyone to connect their one device to the network, including wiggle room for guests.

Now, every person has a laptop, cell phone, and some sort of accessory – each with its own IP address.

Each of these devices are transmitting a tiny amount of data, but that data and usage grows exponentially.

Plus, if you don’t have that wiggle room for extra connections, you’re more susceptible to a denial of service (DoS) attack, which is when cybercriminals overwhelm your network with traffic and bring it to a halt.

Your network needs to be able to handle an increase in traffic while also securing all that extra information that you do not have control over.

It is scary and overwhelming, but you can take steps to secure yourself without going too far.

The easy way is withholding access to anything that is not corporate-owned and approved. However, limiting all these devices can have a negative impact on your business and its operation.

Instead, take a measured approach. Make sure your firewall is up-to-date, and monitor who is trying to access your network. Limit that access to the smallest “allow” list you can without making it impossible to work.

For all the smart things like watches and thermostats, keep these IoT devices on a separate virtual network. Encourage and educate users to keep their devices up-to-date – and to use them responsibly while on the network.

Cyberattacks are always increasing and changing, and a strong defense makes a considerable impact when it comes to preventing huge losses in productivity, data, business reputation and funds.

Developers know this too, and that’s why it’s important that your devices – all of them, from servers and PCs to security cameras and thermostats – are all kept up-to-date. These updates help patch up holes in the firmware and software that can otherwise be exploited.

We’re big proponents of the “an ounce of prevention is worth a pound of cure” philosophy. If you need help closing up any gaps in your network security, Tech Experts can assist.

We can conduct a network survey, set policies and passwords, segment and restrict access to/from your network, and ensure the right people have the right access.

As cyberattacks against small businesses mount, the time to fortify your first line of defense is now, before it’s too late.

Do I Really Need A Firewall For My Business?

Ron Cochran is a senior help desk technician for Tech Experts.

Before we answer that, let’s look at what a firewall actually is. No, no actual flames of any kind are involved whatsoever.

A firewall is a barrier or “shield” intended to protect your PC, tablet, or phone from the data-based malware dangers that exist on the Internet. Data is exchanged between your computer and servers and routers in cyberspace, and firewalls monitor this data (sent in packets) to check whether they’re safe or not.

This is done by establishing whether the packets meet the rules that have been set up. Based on these rules, packets of data are accepted or rejected.

While most operating systems (desktop and mobile) feature a basic built-in firewall, the best results can usually be gained from using a dedicated firewall application, unless you know how to set up the built-in firewall properly and have the time to do so.

Firewall applications in security suites feature a host of automated tools that use whitelisting to check which of your applications should accept and reject data from the Internet — something that most users might find far too time consuming to do manually.

So it makes sense, now that it’s clear what a firewall is for, to have one installed and active. But just in case you’re still doubtful of the benefits…

Everyone who accesses the Internet needs a firewall of some kind. Without one, your computer will allow access to anyone who requests it and will open up your data to hackers more easily. The good news is that both Windows and Apple computers now come with built-in software firewalls (although the Mac’s firewall is turned off by default).

But businesses, especially those with multiple users or those that keep sensitive data, typically need firewalls that are more robust, more customizable, and offer better reporting than these consumer-grade alternatives.

Even a relatively small business engages in exponentially more interactions than an individual, with multiple users and workstations, and customers and suppliers. These days, most of those interactions are online and pose risks.

Not only are businesses exposed to riskier online interactions, the potential damage from each interaction is also greater. Businesses frequently keep everything from competitive bids and marketing plans to sensitive banking and customer data on their computers. When unprotected, the exposure is enormous.

Firewalls also allow computers outside of your network to securely connect to the servers that are inside your network. This is critical for employees who work remotely. It gives you the control to let the “good” connections in and keep the “bad” connections out.

Hardware firewalls must be compatible with your system and must be able to handle the throughput your business requires. They must be configured properly or they won’t work and can even stop your network from functioning entirely. You can use multiple hardware firewalls to take advantage of differing strengths and weaknesses.

Some industries (like medical and financial services) have specific regulatory requirements, so it’s important to consult your IT professional before choosing a firewall to make sure you’re not exposing your business to unnecessary liability.

It’s also important for you, or your IT service company, to constantly monitor the firewall to ensure it is up and working, as well as to ensure that it is regularly updated with security patches and virus definitions.

If you currently are not protected by a firewall or would like to inquire about an upgrade to your network infrastructure, please feel free to email ( or call (734-457-5000).

IT Policies Companies Under HIPAA Regulations Must Have

Thomas Fox is president of Tech Experts, southeast Michigan’s leading small business computer support company.

HIPAA (the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act) and HITECH (the Health Information Technology for Economic and Clinical Health act) have been around for quite some time. Even so, many companies covered by these laws are way behind when it comes to implementation. When you really think about it, even companies not covered by these laws should have the requisite policies and procedures in place.

Access Control Policy
How are users granted access to programs, client data and equipment? Also includes how administrators are notified to disable accounts.

Security Awareness Training
Organizations must ensure regular training of employees regarding security updates and what to be aware of. You must also keep an audit trail of reminders and communications in case you’re audited.

[Read more…]

Seven Smart Tips To Secure Your Business Network

Thomas Fox is president of Tech Experts, southeast Michigan’s leading small business computer support company.

Hackers are constantly on the lookout for digital data they can use to make a profit, either by stealing money electronically or by selling the information to third parties.

Therefore, it is important to protect your precious data; here are seven tips to get you started:

Your staff is the front line of defense against hackers. Human error is one of the leading causes of data security breaches, so you need to have policies in place to ensure your employees are promoting the security of your network while working.

Strong passwords
People generally opt for simple easy-to-remember passwords that hackers can easily crack.

A simple “dictionary attack” (using an automated tool that uses a combination of dictionary words and numbers to crack passwords), is sufficient to uncover many passwords.

On the other hand, coming up with a complicated password and saving it to your computer as opposed to writing it down is a simple but very effective way to prevent hacks.

Multi-factor authentication
It is highly advisable to establish multiple layers of technology dedicated to security that you would apply to all your devices, including desktops, mobile devices, file servers, mail servers and network end points.

Multiple security blocks hacking attacks and alerts you to any problems beforehand so you can take the appropriate measures.

Data encryption
Encryption is yet another great security tool that you can use to protect your data. For instance, if your hard disk is stolen or your USB drive is lost, anyone trying to access your data would be unable to read it if it is encrypted.

Backupicon with gold lock
Security makes up half of your data protection, while a proper backup strategy makes up for the other half.
Even with great security, you need to be able to recover your data if you have a failure. Back up often, and remember to test the backup regularly.

You need to identify the vulnerable areas of your network or which data needs to be protected.

Your entire IT infrastructure, including your computers, mobile devices and network should be audited by a professional IT specialist to determine the appropriate steps to prevent hackers from accessing your data.

Managed services
Managed services are an alternative and highly-effective approach for achieving the best possible security, including backup and recovery.

Many small businesses are unable to adequately meet the daunting and expensive task of securing their data.

With a managed-service provider specialized in data security, you get the benefit of professional services and skills without having to hire an in-house security expert, thus cutting on costs. In addition, you get access to the latest security technology and support professionals.

(Image Source: iCLIPART)

What Happens To Stolen Data After A Breach?

Michael Menor is Vice President of Support Services for Tech Experts.

Data breaches have become so common that virtually everyone has been impacted by a breach in some way. Breaches at big retailers make the news, and replacement credit cards ominously arrive in the mail from our banks.

However, there is a lot more to most data breaches than meets the eye, as is the case with more traditional robberies, the theft of data is often just the beginning of the crime. If criminals can’t use or sell stolen data without being caught, then the data quickly becomes worthless. As a result it’s critical to understand what happens to data after a breach.

Understanding the Criminal Infrastructure
While “hacktivist” groups will periodically expose data to further an ideological cause, the vast majority of breaches are perpetrated by criminal groups focused on financial profit. Since very few of these attacks result in the direct theft of currency, criminals need a way to turn their stolen data into money.

Even in the simple case of stolen credit card information, criminals either need to sell the cards to other criminals or use the cards directly to commit fraud. In either case, the card data itself is a precursor to future fraud.

This may seem incidental at first, but there are important consequences. Specifically, the ability to monetize stolen data requires a very different set of skills than those needed to breach a network in the first place.

Data Protection on Red Keyboard Button.A network breach can be a relatively targeted operation perpetrated by a few attackers. However, once a breach is successful, the scale of the operation changes entirely. Whether the stolen data is personally identifiable information (PII), payment card data, or login credentials, the attackers face a challenge of scale. Millions of individual records need to be monetized either by reselling them or using the data directly for profit.

The sheer volume of data makes it impractical to do these tasks manually, and this is where cybercriminals need help. In most cases help arrives in the form of botnets that can automate the processing of individual records, and a larger ecosystem of organized crime that can consume the stolen data. Here are a few examples.

Direct Financial Fraud
Payment card breaches such as the recent attack against Target have obvious financial impacts and motivations. Yet while it is relatively simple for a criminal to derive value from an individual stolen credit card, doing the same for millions of cards is another thing entirely.

This is where the larger criminal ecosystem comes into play. The attackers behind the breach will sell the stolen card data to brokers, who in turn sell cards in batches to lower level criminals who use the data to either buy goods online or print cards to be used in physical stores.

This ecosystem shares a common problem in that stolen credit cards have a very limited shelf-life. As soon as it becomes apparent that a specific merchant has been compromised (Target for example), all of the compromised cards will be quickly deactivated.

This means that freshly stolen and active cards are highly valuable ($100 or more), while older cards can be worth pennies. This is a serious spread, and criminals need to know which sorts of cards they are buying, and the state of the cards they are holding.

To address this challenge, criminals will periodically test a subset of their cards by using them to make small online purchases. Attackers can drop a few hundred credit cards into a botnet programmed to make small purchases, and quickly determine the percentage of cards that are active and working.

Oddly enough, charities such as the Red Cross are a common recipients of these charges because they commonly receive small donations, and the purchase is unlikely to raise red flags with the consumer. Disrupting these validation steps could provide an interesting way to devalue the black-market price of stolen cards, and make the attacks less profitable for an attacker.

Stolen Credentials
End-user credentials (usernames and passwords) are another common target of attackers, and can provide considerable long-term value for additional attacks and fraud.

Unlike payment cards, there are no centralized authorities to deactivate compromised usernames and passwords in the event of a breach. A website that is compromised may lock out affected users so that they have to change their passwords, but there is nothing keeping an attacker from using the stolen credentials at other sites.

A 2011 study from PayPal unsurprisingly found that 60% of users reuse passwords at multiple sites, meaning that a breach at one site can easily spider out to other sites around the Internet.

In order to find sites where credentials are re-used, attackers again turn to botnets in what are called credential stuffing attacks. In these attacks, stolen credentials are fed into distributed botnets, which in turn slowly and deliberately test those credentials against high-value websites.

These attacks can afford to be patient, and will slowly test logins from many different IP addresses to avoid rate and reputation-based triggers that could expose the attack.
This strategy can transform a seemingly innocuous breach into something far more serious. If an attacker is able to take-over a victim’s account on an e-commerce site, they could easily commit fraud in the victim’s name.

Such fraud may take longer to identify because the attacker is using the victim’s real account and from a site that the victim is known to use.

Credentials to social media sites are also highly valuable, enabling an attacker to easily impersonate the victim and infect his or her social networks.

Likewise, compromised personal webmail accounts can be a goldmine for an attacker. Such access not only provides the attacker insight into the victim’s identity, but can also be key to breaking into additional online accounts.

Most sites and applications have an option to reset or resend a user’s password to the email address on file. If the attacker has access to the victim’s email account, he can again use a botnet to proactively find online accounts where that email is used, and then obtain or reset the victim’s password.

These are just a few examples, but it serves to illustrate why it’s important for security teams to consider the lifecycle of stolen data.

In order to monetize a breach, attackers often need to go through additional steps, and this provides additional opportunities to mitigate the effects of a breach.

Likewise, companies can insulate themselves from the impacts of breaches elsewhere on the Internet by knowing how criminals attempt to automatically use stolen data.

This of course won’t prevent breaches from happening in the future, but it certainly is possible to mitigate the damage.

(Image Source: iCLIPART)

Network Security: Top Tips For A Secure Network

by Michael Menor, Network Technician
As the first layer of defense in your network, it is important to take a step back and review the design of your perimeter security.

To ensure a sound architecture, you want to start with what ultimately must be protected and then design your perimeter security so it can scale as your needs grow/change. Since the threats you know about and face today may not be the ones you face tomorrow, you want to be sure your design is flexible enough to meet future needs.

Think of your network perimeter like a castle during medieval times, which has multiple layers of defense – a moat, high walls, big gate, guards, etc. Even in medieval times, people understood the importance of having layers of security and the concept is no different today in information security. Here are four tips:

Build layers of security around your castle
No defense is 100% effective. That’s why defense-in-depth is so important when it comes to building out your security. The traditional first line of defense against attacks is typically the firewall, which is configured to allow/deny traffic by source/destination IP, port or protocol.

It’s very binary – either traffic is allowed or it’s blocked by these variables. The evolution of these network security devices has brought the Next-Generation firewall, which can include application control, identity awareness and other capabilities such as IPS (Intrusion Prevention Systems), web filtering, advanced malware detection, and more baked into one appliance.

Whether or not it’s part of your firewall or a separate device, IPS is another important perimeter defense mechanism. Having your IPS properly optimized and monitored is a good way to catch attackers that have slipped past the first castle defense (firewall/router).

The popularity of moving more into the cloud has brought cloud-based malware detection and DDoS (Distributed Denial of Service) services. Unlike appliance-based solutions these are cloud-based services that sit outside your architecture and analyze traffic before it hits your network.

Harden your device configurations, software updates and security policies
Here is where we start building those walls to prevent attackers from getting inside the castle. The first line of defense typically involves network security devices such as routers, firewalls, etc. which each act like the guards, gate, moats, etc. of long ago.

For each layer of security, you want to ensure they are running the most up-to-date software and operating systems, and that devices are configured properly.

A common misstep occurs when organizations assume they are secure because of their many layers of defense, but a misconfigured device is like giving an attacker a key to the castle. Another important practice is to tighten security policies (of course without impacting the business), so for example you don’t have a router allowing just anyone to Telnet to it from outside your network.

Enable secure network access
While firewalls, routers and other security layers are in place to prevent unauthorized access, they also enable access that is approved. So how do we let authorized personnel into the castle? The drawbridge of course! Next-generation firewalls can help here by scanning inbound and outbound user traffic, all while looking for patterns of suspicious behavior.

Password complexity also plays a big part in Secure Network Access. Ensure your users are following these common rules.

  • The password must be exactly 8 characters long.
  • It must contain at least one letter, one number, and one special character.
  • Two of the same characters sitting next to each other are considered to be a “set.” No “sets” are allowed.
  • Avoid using names, such as your name, user ID, or the name of your company or employer.
  • A new password shouldn’t be too similar to the previous password.

Another way to have secure access from the outside through the perimeter is to install a VPN (Virtual Private Network) that is configured to allow encrypted communication to your network from the outside. Utilizing two-factor authentication with a VPN contributes towards ensuring the integrity of the users making the request. This is external-facing to your network and allows users to tunnel into your LAN (Local Area Network) from the outside once the appropriate measures are taken to secure access.

Create and segment the DMZ
If firewalls, routers, web filters, etc. are the guards, moat, gate, walls of a castle, then the DMZ (De-Militarized Zone) is like the courtyard once inside the castle – another area before the private quarters.

When creating a DMZ, there should be at least a front-end firewall for the external traffic and a back-end firewall for the internal traffic. Firewall rules should be optimized and tightened on all publicly available systems to allow traffic to only the necessary ports and services in the DMZ. From an internal perspective you also want to limit who can access systems within the DMZ. One approach is creating firewall rules to only allow the source IP addresses and port to the specific server and then adding proxies in the network from which admins are allowed access to the systems.

Segmenting systems within the DMZ is also something to strongly consider so that if a system is breached in the DMZ, it can’t spread as easily. For example, you don’t want a web server passing data to an application or database server in a “public DMZ.” Configuring systems within different VLANs (with a layer 3 switch) will help you isolate and respond to incidents if a server in a DMZ is compromised.

A sound network security perimeter architecture requires multiple layers of defense, up-to-date and hardened policies and controls and segmentation. All of these things make it harder for an attacker to gain access to your crown jewels and easier for you to isolate and respond to breaches when they occur.